Recently, a Twitter user by the name of Kathy presented me with a list of so-called fulfilled prophecies, as part of her argument that god exists.
Kathy presents many forms of ‘evidence’, but fulfilled prophecies are the only potentially useful form. The rest is either useless as evidence, completely absent, or both; for example, martyrdom which cannot be considered evidence in any sense, and eyewitness accounts of supernatural events, which the Bible does not verifiably contain, but would simply be hearsay if it did. For fulfilled prophecies to be useful as evidence, they would have to meet certain standards, and I’ll explain those soon.
She also seems to believe that the standard for evidence should be the legal standard. Even if we grant that, what she presents does not qualify. I could write at length on the problems with this standard of evidence, but to keep on topic, I will be using Kathy’s preferred definition of evidence:
the available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid.
This is the official definition, but that also means it’s a general definition, and only useful in establishing the truth of mundane things for practical purposes. For the extraordinary claim of the existence of God, a far higher standard of evidence is actually required for both practical and scientific proof.
Kathy is not the only one with whom I have had a discussion on this matter. A Muslim has also presented me with several supposed scientific predictions from the Quran, intended to prove its veracity. I countered many of those claims during the debate, but may come back to more formally counter them at a later time.
In this article, I will use the terms prophecy and prediction interchangeably, as the two types of claim are so similar in logical form, and they can both be refuted with the same logic.
An Important Note
I think it’s relevant to understand that the fulfilled prophecies / accurate predictions argument, like many other theistic arguments, does not rationally lead to any specific god. A book could be written which contains miraculous predictions and mentions a specific god without the two being connected. If a useful prophecy could in fact be proven, the best explanation would actually be the intervention of some other evolved life form.
This argument wouldn’t even get us to deism if it worked.
The Standards for Fulfilled Prophecies
There are certain standards that any prophecies or predictions would have to meet to be considered compelling evidence for divine inspiration. I have given these below, and given my reasoning for each.
In order to strengthen the reasoning, I have included for each a razor. They are logical laws which apply universally, and in each case, these razors undermine the use of supposed fulfilment as evidence under each of the standards given. If you accept the validity of the razors, then you accept the validity of the standards. If you don’t, then you’ll have to formulate arguments against the razors themselves. These razors are all of my own invention.
If you disagree with any of these, please criticise me in the comments, as the debunking relies on these standards.
Almost anything with the right grammatical properties can be presented as a prophecy or prediction. Any book, or even text from other mediums, can be used as such. Most holy books are littered with such passages. One could derive thousands of potential prophecies from any given holy book. For this reason, it is not at all surprising that some of them can be matched to reality.
I call this Scriptural Matching. Some of the so-called prophecies and predictions I’ve heard posited by theists are so vague that they could be matched to any number of things, at the discretion of the theist. It’s a placebo effect, and the potency of the effect is dependant entirely on the mind of the target.
The way to avoid this problem is with precision. A prophecy which is precise enough is much harder to accuse of incidental matching. I would be convinced almost immediately of some exterior intervention (not necessarily by a god) by a sufficiently precise numerical prediction. Something like 5-10 decimal places of precision, accurately predicted at a time when knowing such would have been impossible by mundane means.
The Prophecy Precision Razor is as follows:
Any standards for fulfilled prophecy are logically applied across all sources, affording equal credulity to all sources.
Which is to say: If the Bible makes predictions, then you must, without any bias or presupposition, apply the same standards to the Quran, and in fact, to every other text, including known fiction. If the Bible makes accurate predictions, then so does The Lord of the Rings, Harry Potter, and the works of Dr Seuss.
If you are willing to admit that it would be possible to deliberately fulfil prophecies, then we must dismiss all supposed fulfilments which are driven by human activity. If we can prove that a supposed fulfilment is entirely natural, and not directly or seemingly deliberately caused by the activity of intelligent minds, then the problem of conspiracy vanishes.
It’s true that a prediction is still technically accurate even if the fulfilment of it was conspired; the problem with that is that the accuracy proves nothing at that point. Any sufficiently vague supposed prediction in any text could be intentionally fulfilled.
The reason for the fulfilment, if fulfilled by people, could be the knowledge of the prophecy itself, rather than something which occurs without that bias, such as completely natural events. The reason that scientists perform mostly double-blind experiments is to eliminate bias, because that’s definitively a requirement of objectivity. No rational person is going to be convinced by a supposedly fulfilled prophecy which is not objectively fulfilled.
Of course, if God himself fulfilled a prophecy through supernatural means, this standard would effectively be met, but the prophecy itself would be irrelevant in comparison to the evidence of the supernatural event, if it could be proven.
Direct and deliberate fulfilment is not even necessary, as certain political and sociological factors can come to confluence such that certain prophecies are likely to be fulfilled, and may or may not have been if the prophecy was never written. This proves only aspects of human nature, and not exterior intervention.
The Prophecy Naturalism Razor is as follows:
The possibility of divine fulfilment of a prophecy is less likely than that human knowledge of the prophecy caused its own fulfilment.
Even if a prophecy is found to be precise and natural, that may still depend on interpretation.
If there’s two plausible things that a so-called prophecy could mean, then how can we be sure that either interpretation was the original intention?
As it happens, most supposedly fulfilled prophecies from holy books have far more than just two plausible meanings. Depending on your scope of interpretation, one could theoretically come up with any number of them. Of course, there’s a point of clarity at which only one meaning is rational to believe.
If we were analysing this in a scientific context, we would require the level of clarity of language used in modern science. Anything short of that is only good enough for practical belief, not proof beyond reasonable doubt.
The Prophecy Clarity Razor is as follows:
If any two interpretations of a supposed prophecy seem reasonably plausible, then neither can be rationally asserted as definitive.
If I prophecise that the sun shall rise tomorrow morning, will anyone be particularly impressed when my prophecy is fulfilled?
Mundane prophecies are totally useless in establishing any sort of divinity responsible for the prophecy. Anyone could make one and anyone could get it right.
The Prophecy Abnormality Razor is as follows:
For a prophecy to indicate divinity, it must be sufficiently difficult to predict. A likely event or state is not difficult to predict.
This one is obvious, but it’s worth including it on the list. A fulfilled prophecy isn’t actually fulfilled if it doesn’t line up with reality. I’m including this standard mainly for completeness in debunking certain supposed prophecies and predictions later in the article.
There is no razor for this standard, as this standard is necessary by definition for a prophecy or prediction to be fulfilled.
Aside from prophecies and predictions, there are also promises, which are similar. A promise asserts or predicts a continuous state of affairs, rather than a distinct event. In fact, in this case, the distinct events can be the disproof, rather than the proof.
In the case of promises, a state of affairs must never have changed from the promised state. If it has, then that’s a breach of the accuracy standard.
Matters of interpretation as to whether a promise was intended to be absolute or just a general tendency are really discussions about precision and clarity. Until a prophecy’s meaning is nailed down to something specific, the only rational standard for accuracy that we have is literal accuracy.
The Prophecies and Predictions
1. Israel will prevail over its enemies
Bible passage: Isaiah 41:12-14
Written: perhaps between 701-681 BC
Fulfilled: late 1900s
In Isaiah 41:12-14, the prophet said God would help Israel during times of conflict with enemies (if the people have faith in God). Isaiah said this during a time when the northern kingdom of Israel had already been conquered by the Assyrian Empire. And the southern kingdom, Judah, was about to be conquered by Babylon. (The Bible explains that Israel and Judah lost their independence because so many of the residents had turned to false religions). But, since 1948 when Israel was re-established, Israel has been attacked by much-larger countries. And Israel has prevailed in each of those attacks. This prophecy has found partial fulfillment; Christian scholars believe that a time will come when all of Israel’s enemies are destroyed.
Here is Isaiah 41:12-14
Though you search for your enemies, you will not find them. Those who wage war against you will be as nothing at all. For I am the Lord, your God, who takes hold of your right hand and says to you, Do not fear; I will help you. Do not be afraid, O worm Jacob, O little Israel, for I myself will help you,” declares the Lord, your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel.
Failed Standards: Precision, Naturalism, Clarity, Accuracy. [4/5]
To give an idea of the vagueness of this claim, allow me to re-word it:
Israel will always win.
Anyone could make a prediction of that level of precision at any given time in history. This is not a prophecy, it’s a wishful assertion about a very general state of affairs.
Humans are the only causal agents which could possibly have an effect on this. There is no way to claim that any part of this prophecy would be natural.
A major problem with this is that it doesn’t explicitly say that Jews must believe in and follow god for the passage to be fulfilled. It would be reasonable to interpret that either way.
There are also a few ways that you could interpret the sentence about Israel’s enemies. Will their enemies be completely unnoticed, or just outmatched? What constitutes war? There are probably some violent enemies of Israel who are not formally at war with Israel.
Many Israelis have died in the current conflict. Now, it’s true that the prophecy doesn’t say that no Israeli will die, but it does say that their enemies will “be as nothing at all”. By a literal interpretation, that would preclude any Israeli deaths. Arguments around the interpretation fall into the clarity standard, and most likely cause this prophecy to fail to meet it on their own.
Also, the part about searching for enemies, but not finding them is highly wrong. Israel has no trouble finding enemies, especially where it is right now.
Tell me if the Holocaust has any relevance to this prophecy. I think it does.
2. The ruins of Israel would be rebuilt
Bible passage: Amos 9:11, 13
Written: about 750 BC
Fulfilled: late 1900s
In Amos 9:11, 13, the prophet said that God would restore the land of David. (King David ruled Israel from about 1010 BC to about 970 BC). The land of David – Israel – was conquered and destroyed by the Babylonians, Assyrians and Romans. The land has been in ruins for much of the past 2000 years. The Jews, who had been scattered throughout the world, began to return in large numbers during the past 100 years. Since then, they have been rebuilding many of Israel’s ancient cities. Amos also said there would be continuous planting and harvesting. During the past 100 years, the Jews have been using advanced farming and irrigation techniques to turn barren land into productive farmland. Today, Israel is a source of food for many countries.
Here is Amos 9:11, 13
“In that day I will restore David’s fallen tent. I will repair its broken places, restore its ruins, and build it as it used to be,” … “The days are coming,” declares the Lord, “when the reaper will be overtaken by the plowman and the planter by the one treading grapes. New wine will drip from the mountains and flow from all the hills.”
Failed Standards: Precision, Naturalism, Clarity, Accuracy. [4/5] (or 5/5 depending on interpretation)
Abnormality would be failed depending on the interpretation, but if it wasn’t failed, the prophecy would be far weaker evidence than the events occurring to fulfil it, as explained in the clarity section.
Firstly, which day? That’s about as imprecise as it’s possible to be.
Again, I’ll reword the prophecy to demonstrate its vagueness:
Israel will be at least partially rebuilt one day.
Every brick laid fulfils this prophecy, even if that’s the only brick ever laid. You could argue that the passage means to say that Israel will be completely rebuilt, but wouldn’t that require it to be exactly equal to how it was in David’s day? Whether in terms of physical construction, political power, or any measure of both, such is unattainable.
If God’s doing the repair work, then the fulfilment of the prophecy won’t be nearly as impressive as the magically reconstructing buildings. The reality is that people are doing the construction work. For this reason, the naturalism standard is not met.
The use of “Tent” is clearly supposed to be metaphorical, but what it’s meant to represent is down to interpretation.
“As it used to be” is ambiguous. The literal meaning is unattainable (and undesirable), as well as clearly not where the nation is currently headed.
The rest of the quote is poetic, and serves no actual purpose as a prophecy. If it does, then it’s definitely ambiguous.
As mentioned, the nation of Israel is not headed towards the exact same status that was present in David’s day. The site even says that the Jews have been using advanced farming and irrigation techniques.
3. Ezekiel prophesied prosperity for modern-day Israel
Bible passage: Ezekiel 36:11
Written: between 593-571 BC
Fulfilled: late 1900s
In Ezekiel 36:11, the prophet said that there would come a time when Israel would be more prosperous than it was in the past. The Bible describes Israel as being a prosperous nation during the time of King David and King Solomon about 3000 years ago. But, Ezekiel knew a very different Israel. In Ezekiel’s day (he lived about 2600 years ago), the northern kingdom of Israel already had been decimated by the Assyrians, and the southern kingdom (called Judah) was being destroyed by the Babylonians. In the centuries that followed these destructions, Jews rebuilt the city of Jerusalem, but their homeland was destroyed again, by the Romans, about 1900 years ago. Since then, a majority of Jews have lived in exile. But during the past 100 years, millions of Jews from around the world moved to Israel and they have been rebuilding the country once again. Today, Israel again is an independent nation, as it was in the days of King David, and it is one of the world’s most prosperous countries. In 1999, Israel had the highest per capita Gross Domestic Product of any nearby country, even though the surrounding countries have many oil resources.
Here is Ezekiel 36:11
I will increase the number of men and animals upon you, and they will be fruitful and become numerous. I will settle people on you as in the past and will make you prosper more than before. Then you will know that I am the Lord.
Failed Standards: Precision, Naturalism, Clarity, Abnormality. [4/5]
Here’s what the simplified version of the prophecy is:
Jewish population will grow in Israel, including their livestock.
That’s very vague.
This prophecy depends completely on the machinations of mankind.
It could be claimed that the passage means that re-settlement will occur after a time of absence or decreased population, but that’s not explicit at all, and I see no indication to consider that interpretation any more likely.
This prophecy could literally be fulfilled the next day. Populations are almost always growing.
4. Trees again would grow in Israel
Bible passage: Isaiah 41:18-20
Written: perhaps between 701-681 BC
Fulfilled: late 1900s
In Isaiah 41:18-20, the prophet’s talk of a future restoration of Israel coincides with an occurrence in modern Israel – the construction of a vast irrigation system to improve farming. The lack of available water, including rain, is one reason why Israel had been a desolate, unproductive land during much of the past 2000 years. But, during the 1900s, when many Jews returned to their ancient homeland, they built a network of irrigation systems. And during the past century, more than 200 million trees have been planted in Israel.
Here is Isaiah 41:18-20
I will make rivers flow on barren heights, and springs within the valleys. I will turn the desert into pools of water, and the parched ground into springs. I will put in the desert the cedar and the acacia, the myrtle and the olive. I will set pines in the wasteland, the fir and the cypress together, so that people may see and know, may consider and understand, that the hand of the Lord has done this, that the Holy One of Israel has created it.
Failed Standards: Precision, Clarity [2/5] (or 5/5 depending on interpretation)
Depending on interpretation, Naturalism, Abnormality, and Accuracy are also failed; this is explained further in the Clarity section below.
This is a general statement about the growth of plant life and of other natural features in a landscape. It doesn’t give us enough detail to indicate pre-cognition. Here’s a simplification:
Natural features in Israel will become abundant
Not exactly something you’d have to be divine to get right.
The passage does say that God would be doing these things himself, even stating that “the hand of the lord has done this”, and the explanation from the article even says that the people themselves are doing it.
So, pick your argument and graciously accept the result:
If you’re arguing that God is responsible for the changes, it would be evident that something supernatural was going on, as trees don’t naturally grow in deserts. As they aren’t, in reality, growing there naturally, there’s no reason to posit divine intervention, and thus, this fails to meet the Accuracy standard.
If you’re arguing that people were responsible for the changes, then Naturalism and Abnormality are failed. Naturalism is failed for obvious reasons, and as for abnormality, people cultivate land — that’s not abnormal.
If the prophecy is not claiming specifically that God will be fulfilling it, then it fails the Precision standard even more than it already did.
If the prophecy is claiming that God is responsible, but people are the ones fulfilling it, then it fails the Accuracy standard.
5. Isaiah said Israel’s fruit would fill the world
Bible passage: Isaiah 27:6
Written: perhaps between 701-681 BC
Fulfilled: late 1900s
In Isaiah 27:6, the prophet said Israel would one day blossom and fill the world with fruit. This prophecy has been at least partially fulfilled, literally and symbolically. Today, the land of Israel, which had been barren for centuries, is a leading producer of agricultural products, exporting food to many countries. This prophecy also has been fulfilled symbolically with the worldwide spread of Christianity. Christianity, which began with Jesus in Israel, now has about 2 billion followers worldwide.
Here is Isaiah 27:6
In days to come Jacob will take root, Israel will bud and blossom and fill all the world with fruit.
Failed Standards: Precision, Naturalism, Clarity, Abnormality [4/5] (or 5/5 depending on interpretation)
Depending on interpretation, Accuracy is also failed. See the Clarity section below for more details.
A simplified version of this prophecy:
Fruit from Israel will grow and fill the world
Again, not a prophecy one would have to be divine to make.
The inclusion of “in days to come” also adds to the vagueness of this prophecy.
Unless the prophecy is suggesting that the fruit is going to magically transport itself around the world, then human intervention is required for this to happen.
There’s several points of ambiguity here:
- As the article itself says, the meaning could be either figurative of literal, using fruit to mean literal fruit or Christianity, but it could also be used to mean many other things — Israeli culture isn’t very pervasive around the entire world, and Judaism itself is a very small world religion.
- The passage specifies that “all the world” will be filled with fruit. Israel may export fruit to many places (as most countries do), but certainly not to all of them. Is the prophecy specifying abundant export of fruit, or complete coverage of export of fruit? If the latter is assumed to be the case, then the Accuracy standard is failed.
If this was an abnormal event, Israel would be the only country doing it. It very much isn’t.
6. Jerusalem would become the world’s most important religious site
Bible passage: Micah 4:1
Written: sometime between 750-686 BC
In Micah 4:1, the prophet said that the Temple mount in Jerusalem would become the focal point of the world. This prophecy has not yet been fulfilled. But, it is interesting to note that Jerusalem is, and has been for centuries, the world’s most important religious site. Christians and Jews regard the city as the world’s most important, and Christians and Jews comprise about one-third of the world’s population. No other city in the world is a religious focal point to as many people.
Here is Micah 4:1
In the last days the mountain of the Lord’s temple will be established as chief among the mountains; it will be raised above the hills, and peoples will stream to it.
Failed Standards: Precision, Naturalism, Clarity, Accuracy [4/5]
Here’s the simplification of this prophecy:
The holy mountain will become the most important.
Again, anyone could say this with confidence, it isn’t precise enough to evidence divinity.
This depends completely on the actions of people.
Is the mountain or the temple going to be literally raised above other hills, or just figuratively? That’s already four different possibilities of what this passage could be referring to. The “peoples will stream to it” part is also quite ambiguous, not to mention imprecise.
The article itself admits that this prophecy hasn’t been fulfilled. The site’s title is “Ten Bible prophecies fulfilled recently“, so this shouldn’t even be on the list.
7. Egypt would never again rule over other nations
Bible passage: Ezekiel 29:15
Written: between 593-571 BC
Fulfilled: 1967, etc.
In Ezekiel 29:15, the prophet says that Egypt would recover from a desolation (perhaps Babylon’s attack about 2600 years ago), but that it would never again rule over other nations. Up until the time of Ezekiel, Egypt had been a world power for centuries, dominating many nations, including Israel. But for most of the past 2500 years, Egypt has been controlled by foreign powers, including the Romans, Ottomans and Europeans. Today, Egypt is an independent nation again. In 1948, 1967 and 1973, Egypt tried to dominate Israel but was unsuccessful each time, despite the fact that Egypt is 10 times larger than Israel. Since the time of Ezekiel, Egypt no longer rules over other nations.
Here is Ezekiel 29:15
It will be the lowliest of kingdoms and will never again exalt itself above the other nations. I will make it so weak that it will never again rule over the nations.
Failed standards: Precision, Naturalism, Abnormality, Accuracy [4/5]
Egypt will become weak.
Nowhere near precise enough to indicate divinity.
This is entirely based on the actions of people
What civilisation prospers today which also prospered 5000 years ago? Every nation goes through fundamental changes in its history, it isn’t Abnormal for a civilisation to fall.
This is a weak failure, but a failure nonetheless.
Egypt is far from the “lowliest of nations”. 84 nations have a lower life expectancy than Egypt, 150 nations have a lower GDP, 65 have a lower GDP per capita. By what measure is this part of the passage accurate?
8. Zechariah prophesied the Jews return to Jerusalem
Bible passage: Zechariah 8:7-8
Written: between 520 and 518 BC
Fulfilled: 1967, etc.
In Zechariah 8:7-8, the prophet said God would bring the Jews back from the east and the west to their homeland (Israel) and that they would be able to live in the city of Jerusalem again. This prophecy has been fulfilled more than once. About 2600 years ago, Babylon destroyed Jerusalem and took many Jews as captives to Babylon. But many Jews later returned from Babylon. The Jews rebuilt Jerusalem but the city was destroyed about 1900 years ago by the Romans. The Romans killed more than 1 million Jews and forced many more into exile. The Jews did not have control of Jerusalem again until 1967 when the Jews recaptured the city during the Six Day War.
Here is Zechariah 8:7-8
This is what the Lord Almighty says: “I will save my people from the countries of the east and the west. I will bring them back to live in Jerusalem; they will be my people, and I will be faithful and righteous to them as their God.”
Failed standards: Precision, Naturalism, Clarity, Accuracy [4/5]
God will bring Jews to Jerusalem.
Like all of the others, vague to the extreme.
Again, dependant completely on the actions of people.
Does the passage mean Jerusalem figuratively (intending to refer to Israel), or literally (referring to the city itself)?
Does it mean to imply all Jews, or just many?
Two words: The Holocaust. God didn’t feel like saving his people from that, shortly before you claim this prophecy was fulfilled?
The passage also says Jerusalem instead of Israel, and so the prophecy has not been fulfilled, as some Israeli Jews have never been to Jerusalem.
9. Israel’s deserts will become like the Garden of Eden
Bible passage: Isaiah 51:3
Written: perhaps between 701-681 BC
Fulfilled: Being fulfilled now
In Isaiah 51:3, the prophet said that God will restore Israel and make it a paradise, like the garden of Eden. This foreshadows what is currently happening in Israel. The Jews have been irrigating, cultivating and reconditioning the land during much of the 1900s. Many of the country’s swamps, which had been infested with malaria, have been converted into farmland. And water from the Sea of Galilee has been channeled through portions of the deserts, allowing some of the deserts to bloom. Much work remains, but parts of Israel are blooming again. Although it was described as a wasteland as recently as the late 1800s, Israel is now a food source for many countries. And at least 200 million of trees have been planted there during the past century.
Here is Isaiah 51:3
The Lord will surely comfort Zion and will look with compassion on all her ruins; he will make her deserts like Eden, her wastelands like the garden of the Lord. Joy and gladness will be found in her, thanksgiving and the sound of singing.
The explanation for this one is simply a mix of that for 2, 4, and 5.
10. Isaiah foretold of the worldwide return of Jews to Israel.
Bible passage: Isaiah 43:5-6
Written: perhaps between 701-681 BC
Fulfilled: late 1900s
In Isaiah 43:5-6, the prophet Isaiah said that the Jews would return to their homeland from the east, the west, the north and the south. Isaiah lived about 2700 years ago. At that time, the Assyrians had forced many Jews in the northern kingdom of Israel into exile. Those Jews were taken to other areas in the Middle East. Then, about 1900 years ago, the Romans destroyed the city of Jerusalem and killed and exiled hundreds of thousands of Jews. Since then, the Jews have been scattered to virtually every country in the world. But, during the past century, millions of Jews have returned to Israel, from the east, the west, the north and the south.
From the east: Many Jews living in the Middle East moved to Israel by the early 1900s.
From the west: During mid-1900s, hundreds of thousands of Jews living in the West (Europe and the United States) began moving to Israel.
From the north: The former Soviet Union (Russia) is north of Israel. It refused to allow its Jewish residents to move to Israel. But, after years of pressure from other countries, Russia finally began to allow Jews to return to Israel during the 1980s. So far, hundreds of thousands of Russian Jews have moved to Israel.
From the south: Ethiopia, which is south of Israel, also refused to allow its Jews to return to Israel. But, in 1985, Israel struck a deal with Ethiopia’s communist government to allow the Jews of Ethiopia to move to Israel. On the weekend of May 25, 1991, 14,500 Ethiopian Jews were airlifted to Israel.
Isaiah’s prophecy was also correct in saying that the north (Russia) and the south (Ethiopia) would have to be persuaded to give up their Jews. Many countries pressured Russia for years before it began to allow its Jews to leave. And Ethiopia had to be paid a ransom to allow its Jews to leave.
Isaiah’s prophecy was also correct in saying that the Jews would return “from the ends of the earth,” and Isaiah said that many centuries before the Jews had been scattered to the ends of the earth. During the past 100 years, Jews living as far east as China, as far west as the West Coast of the United States, as far north as Scandinavia, and as far south as South Africa, have moved to Israel.
Here is Isaiah 43:5-6
“Do not be afraid, for I am with you; I will bring your children from the east and gather you from the west. I will say to the north, `Give them up!’ and to the south, `Do not hold them back.’ Bring my sons from afar and my daughters from the ends of the earth….
This is almost exactly the same as 8.
Simple: None of these prophecies (or any others I’ve ever heard of) evidence anything other than fallible humans saying things worded as prophecies. Kathy, if you’re reading this, perhaps it’s time to drop this argument? That is, unless you refute this article. Good luck.